Preparing for Prayer
So, morning or evening, immediately before you begin to repeat your prayers, stand awhile, sit for a while, or walk a little and try to steady your mind and turn it away from all worldly activities and objects.
After this, think who He is to whom you turn in prayer, then recollect who you are; who it is who is about to start this invocation to Him in prayer.
Do this in such a way as to waken in your heart a feeling of humility and reverent awe that you are standing in the presence of God.
Saint Theophan’s Advice on a Prayer Rule
The advice given below is specific advice Saint Theophan gave to one of His Spiritual Children. Therefore, one must be careful in simply adopting it as ones’ own prayer rule. Always review your prayer rule with your spiritual father who will help you establish one that is appropriate for your current spiritual state. Just like we have different books in first grade than in 12th, there are different levels in prayer that are appropriate to our differing spiritual situations. Saint Theophan advises in the following way:
One does not have to do many prayers. It is better to perform a small number of prayers properly than to hurry through a large number of prayers… I would consider the morning and evening prayers as set out in the prayer books to be entirely sufficient… Just try each time to carry them out with full attention and corresponding feelings… Prayer does not mean that we just recite prayers, but that we assimilate their content within ourselves, and pronounce them as if they came from our minds and hearts.
When you stand at prayer, be careful to keep your mind from drifting and your feeling from coldness and indifference… After you have recited each prayer make prostrations, as many as you like, accompanied by a prayer for any necessity that you feel, or by the usual short prayer…
You must also maintain prayerful attention towards God throughout the day… it is good, very good to memorize several Psalms and recite them while you are working or between tasks, and doing this instead of short prayers.
Go to bed with a short prayer on your lips and fall asleep with it or recite some song. You may limit the entire prayer rule to just prostrations with short prayers and prayer in your own words. Stand and make prostrations, saying “Lord have mercy,” or some other prayer, expressing your need or giving praise and thanks to God. You should establish either a number of prayers, or a time–limit for prayer, or do both so that you do not become lazy.
The essence of prayer is the lifting of the mind and heart to God; these little rules are an aid. We cannot get by without them because of our weakness.
Saint Theophan the Recluse – Beginning to Pray
…The work of prayer is the first work in Christian life. If in everyday affairs the saying: “live and learn” is true, then so much more it applies to prayer, which never stops and which has no limit.
Let me recall a wise custom of the ancient Holy Fathers: when greeting each other, they did not ask about health or anything else, but rather about prayer, saying “How is your prayer?” The activity of prayer was considered by them to a be a sign of the spiritual life, and they called it the breath of the spirit. If the body has breath, it lives; if breathing stops, life comes to an end. So it is with the spirit. If there is prayer, the soul lives; without prayer, there is no spiritual life.
However, not every act of prayer is prayer. Standing at home before your icons, or here in church, and venerating them is not yet prayer, but the “equipment” of prayer. Reading prayers either by heart or from a book, or hearing someone else read them is not yet prayer, but only a tool or method for obtaining and awakening prayer.
Prayer itself is the piercing of our hearts by pious feelings towards God, one after another – feelings of humility, submission, gratitude, doxology, forgiveness, heart-felt prostration, brokenness, conformity to the will of God, etc. All of our effort should be directed so that during our prayers, these feelings and feelings like them should fill our souls, so that the heart would not be empty when the lips are reading the prayers, or when the ears hear and the body bows in prostrations, but that there would be some qualitative feeling, some striving toward God.
When these feelings are present, our praying is prayer, and when they are absent, it is not yet prayer.
It seems that nothing should be simpler and more natural for us than prayer in which the heart is turned toward God. But in fact it is not always like this for everyone. One must awaken and strengthen a prayerful spirit in oneself, that is one must bring up a prayerful spirit. The first means to this is to read or listen to prayers. Pray as you should, and you will certainly awaken and strengthen the ascent of your heart to God and you will come into a spirit of prayer.
Use Of Prayer Books
In our prayer books, there are prayers of the Holy Fathers – Ephraim the Syrian, Makarios the Egyptian, Basil the Great, John Chrysostom, and other great men of prayer. Being filled with the spirit of prayer, they were able to up that living spirit into words, and handed it down to us. When one enters into these prayers with attention and effort, then that great and prayerful spirit will in turn enter into him. He will taste the power of prayer. We must pray so that our mind and heart receive the content of the prayers that we read. In this way the act of praying becomes a font of true prayer in us.
Three Simple Instructions
I will give here three very simple instructions:
- Always begin praying with at least a little preparation;
- Do not pray carelessly, but with attention and feeling; and
- Do not go on to ordinary work immediately after prayer.
Even if prayer is common for us, it always demands preparation. What is more common for those who can read and write than reading and writing? However, sitting down to read or write, we do not immediately begin, but we calm ourselves before beginning, at least to the point that we can read or write in a peaceful state. Even more so preparation for the work of prayer is necessary before praying, especially when what we have been doing before praying is of a totally different nature from prayer.
Preparing For Prayer
Thus, when beginning to pray, in the morning or in the evening, stand for a moment, or sit, or walk, and strive in this time to focus your thoughts, casting off from them all earthly activities and objects…call to mind the One to Whom you are praying, Who He is and who you are, as you begin this prayerful petition to Him…awaken in your soul the feeling of humility and reverent awe of standing before God in your heart.
As you stand piously before God, all of this preparation may seem small and insignificant, but it is not small in meaning. This is the beginning of prayer and a good beginning is half the work.
Beginning Your Prayer
..stand before your icons, make a few prostrations, and begin with the usual prayers: “Glory to Thee, our God, glory to Thee. O Heavenly King Comforter, Spirit of Truth, come abide in us…”
Do not read hurriedly; pay attention to every word and let the meaning of each word enter into your heart…understand what you are reading and feel what you are understanding.
No other rules are necessary. These two – understanding and feeling – have the effect of making prayer fitting, and fruitful. For example, you read: “cleanse us from every stain” – feel your stain, desire cleanliness, and ask it from the Lord with hope.
When you read: “forgive us our debts as we forgive our debtors” – forgive all in your soul, and having forgiven everyone everything in your heart, ask for forgiveness for yourself from the Lord.
When you read: “Thy will be done” – completely give up your own will to the Lord in your heart, and honestly be prepared to meet everything that the Lord is well-pleased to send to to you with a good heart.
If you read each verse of your prayers in this way, then you will be truly praying.
Developing True Prayer
To facilitate the development of true prayer, take these steps:
- keep a prayer rule according to the blessing of your spiritual father – not more than you can read unhurriedly on a normal day;
- become familiar with the prayer in your rule, fully take in each word and feel it, so that you would know in advance what should be in your soul as you read. It will be even better if you learn the prayers by heart. When you do this, then all of your prayers will be easy for you to remember and feel;
- keep your attention focused on the words of your prayer, knowing in advance that your mind will wander. When your mind does wander during prayer, bring it back. When it wanders again, bring it back again. Each and every time that you read a prayer while your thoughts are wandering (and consequently you read it without attention and feeling), then do not fail to read it again. Even if your mind wanders several times in the same place, read it again and again until you read it all the way through with understanding and feeling. In this way, you will overcome this difficulty so that the next time, perhaps, it will not come up again, or if it does return, it will be weaker. This is how one must act when the mind wanders;
- a particular word or phrase might act so strongly on the soul, that the soul no longer wants to continue with the prayer, and even though the lips continue praying, the mind keeps wandering back to that place which first acted on it. In this case: stop, do not read further, but stand with attention and feeling in that place, and use the prayer in that place and the feelings engendered by it to feed your soul. Do not hurry to get yourself out of this state. If time cannot wait, it is better to leave your rule unfinished than to disturb this prayerful state. Maybe this feeling will stay with you all day like your guardian Angel! This sort of grace-filled action on the soul during prayer means that the spirit of prayer is becoming internalized, and consequently, maintaining this state is the most hopeful means of raising up and strengthening a spirit of prayer in your heart;
- when you finish your prayers, do not immediately go off to any sort of work, but remain and think at least a little about what you have just finished and what now lies before you. If some feeling was given to you during prayer, keep it after you pray. If you completed your prayer rule in the true spirit of prayer, then you will not wish to quickly go about other work; this is a property of prayer. Thus our ancestors said when they returned from Constantinople: “he who has tasted sweet things does not desire bitter things.” So it is with each person who has prayed well during his prayers. One should recognize that tasting this sweetness of prayer is the very goal of praying, and if praying leads to a prayerful spirit, then it is exactly through such a tasting.
If you will follow these few rules, then you will quickly see the fruit of prayerful labor. And he who fulfills them already without this instruction, of course, is already tasting this fruit.
All praying leaves prayer in the soul,
Continual prayer in this manner gives it root,
Patience in this work establishes a prayerful spirit.
May God grant this to you by the prayers of our All-pure Mistress, the Theotokos!
I have given you initial basic instruction in the ways of raising up in yourselves a prayerful spirit, that is, how to pray in a way appropriate to the meaning of prayer – at home in the morning and the evening, and in the church.